Patterns, Predictions, and Actions

A story about machine learning

Moritz Hardt and Benjamin Recht

Full book as PDF


  1. Introduction (PDF)
  2. Fundamentals of prediction (PDF)
  3. Supervised learning (PDF)
  4. Representations and features (PDF)
  5. Optimization (PDF)
  6. Generalization (PDF)
  7. Deep learning (PDF)
  8. Datasets (PDF)
  9. Causality (PDF)
  10. Causal inference in practice (PDF)
  11. Sequential decision making and dynamic programming (PDF)
  12. Reinforcement learning (PDF)
  13. Epilogue (PDF)
  14. Mathematical background (PDF)

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Citations, license, typesetting

Please cite this book as:

  author = {Moritz Hardt and Benjamin Recht},
  title = {Patterns, predictions, and actions: A story about machine learning},
  year = {2021},
  publisher = {\url{}},
  archivePrefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {2102.05242},
  primaryClass = {cs.LG},
Last updated: Mon 20 Sep 2021 09:16:11 AM PDT